Singh's three-day trip to resource-rich Myanmar comes as India intensifies its search for gas supplies to fuel its economic boom.
In recent years, India has nervously watched China's domination of Myanmar's oil and gas exploration projects.
Singh's visit will be the first in 25 years by an Indian prime minister to Myanmar, which shares an extensive land border with India.
Foreign Secretary Ranjan Mathai said India is seeking to deepen bilateral cooperation in security, trade and investment.
Singh will also be meeting with Myanmar's democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi.